Misalignment studies in laser diode to hemispherical microlens tipped circular core photonic crystal fiber excitation

Sumanta Mukhopadhyay

Abstract


We investigate theoretically the coupling optics involving a laser diode and a series of circular core photonic crystal fibers with different air filling ratio and hole-pitch via hemispherical microlens of allowable aperture on the tip of such fiber in absence and presence of possible transverse and angular misalignments. By employing Gaussian field distributions for both the source and the fiber and also the already derived ABCD matrix for hemispherical microlens, we formulate analytical expressions for the concerned coupling efficiencies for practically interesting two different light emitting wavelengths of 1.3 μm and 1.5 μm, respectively. Further, it is observed that, for a fit radius of curvature of 6.0 µm of hemispherical microlens, photonic crystal fiber with air filling ratio of 0.45 and hole-pitch of 4.5 µm comes out to be the most suitable one to couple laser diode emitting light of wavelength . Moreover, the coupling efficiency can reach to 86.88% with simultaneous optimization of radius of curvature and working distance of specific lensed fiber. Such analysis which as per our knowledge is the first theoretical investigation, will be extremely important in ongoing investigations for the design of optimum launch optics involving hemispherical microlens on the tip of photonic crystal fiber. Moreover, the results are extremely useful for assessing deeply the sensitivity of such coupler with reference to above kinds of misalignments.

Keywords


ABCD matrix, Circular core photonic crystal fiber, Optical coupling, Transverse misalignment, Angular misalignment

Full Text:

DOWNLOAD PDF

References


P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers”, Science, 299(5605), 358-362 (2003)

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers”, J. Lightwave Technol., 24(12), 4729–4749 (2006)

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres, (Springer Science & Business Media Inc., NewYork, 2003)

R. Bhattacharya, and S. Konar, “Extremely large birefringence and shifting of zero dispersion wavelength of photonic crystal fibers”, Opt. & Laser Technol., 44, 2210–2216 (2012)

M. Sharma, N. Borogohain, and S. Konar, “Index Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers With Large Birefringence and Walk-Off”, J. Lightwave Technol., 31, 3339-3344 (2013)

R. Bhattacharya, and S. Konar, “Design of a Photonic Crystal Fiber with Zero Dispersion Wavelength Near 0.65 µm”, Fiber and Integrated Opt., 27, 89–98 (2008)

M. Sharma, S. Konar, and K. R. Khan, “Supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear hexagonal photonic crystal fiber at very low power”, J. Nanophotonics, 9, 093073(1-8) (2015)

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber”, Opt. Lett., 22(13), 961-963 (1997)

E. Li, “Characterization of fiber lens”, Opt. Lett., 31, 169-171 (2006)

H. M. Presby, and C. A. Edwards, “Near 100% efficient fibre microlenses”, Electron. Lett., 28, 582-584 (1992)

C. A. Edwards, H. M. Presby, and C. Dragone, “Ideal microlenses for laser to fiber coupling”, J. Lightwave Technol., 11, 252-257 (1993)

J. John, T. S. M. Maclean, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, and J. Niblett, “Matching of single-mode fibre to laser diode by microlenses at 1.5 wavelength”, IEE Proc. Optoelectron., 141, 178-184 (1994)

H. M. Presby, and C. A. Edwards, “Efficient coupling of polarization maintaining fiber to laser diodes”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 4, 897-899 (1992)

S. Gangopadhyay, and S.N. Sarkar, “Laser diode to single-mode fibre excitation via hyperbolic lens on the fibre tip: Formulation of ABCD matrix and efficiency computation”, Opt. Commun., 132, 55-60 (1996)

S. Gangopadhyay, and S. N. Sarkar, “ABCD matrix for reflection and refraction of Gaussian light beams at surfaces of hyperboloid of revolution and efficiency computation for laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling by way of a hyperbolic lens on the fiber tip”, Appl. Opt., 36, 8582-8586 (1997)

S. Gangopadhyay, and S. N. Sarkar, “Misalignment considerations in laser diode to single-mode fibre excitation via hyperbolic lens on the fibre tip”, Opt. Commun., 146, 104-108 (1998).

S. Mukhopadhyay, and S. N. Sarkar, “Coupling of a laser diode to single mode circular core graded index fiber via hyperbolic microlens on the fiber tip and identification of the suitable refractive index profile with consideration for possible misalignments”, Opt. Eng., 50(4), 045004(1-9) (2011)

S. Gangopadhyay, and S. N. Sarkar, “Laser diode to single-mode fiber excitation via hemispherical lens on the fiber tip: Efficiency computation by ABCD matrix with consideration for allowable aperture”, J. Opt. Commun., 19, 42-44 (1998)

S. Gangopadhyay, and S. N. Sarkar, “Misalignment considerations in laser diode to single-mode fiber excitation via hemispherical lens on the fiber tip”, J. Opt. Commun., 19, 217-221 (1998)

A. Bose, S. Gangopadhyay, and S. C. Saha, “Laser diode to single mode circular core graded index fiber excitation via hemispherical microlens on the fiber tip: Identification of suitable refractive index profile for maximum efficiency with consideration for allowable aperture”, J. Opt. Commun., 33(1), 15-19 (2012)

H. Liu, L. Liu, R. Xu, and Z. Luan, “ABCD matrix for reflection and refraction of Gaussian beams at the surface of a parabola of revolution”, Appl. Opt., 44, 4809-4813 (2005)

H. Liu, “The approximate ABCD matrix for a parabolic lens of revolution and its application in calculating the coupling efficiency”, Optik, 119, 666-670 (2008)

S. Mukhopadhyay, “Coupling of a laser diode to single mode circular core graded index fiber via parabolic microlens on the fiber tip and identification of the suitable refractive index profile with consideration for possible misalignments”, J. Opt., 45(4), 312–323 (2016)

G. A. Massey, and A. E. Siegman, “Reflection and refraction of Gaussian light beams at tilted ellipsoidal surfaces”, Appl. Opt., 8, 975-978 (1969)

S. K. Mondal, S. Gangopadhyay, and S. N. Sarkar, “Analysis of an upside-down taper lens end from a single-mode step index fiber”, Appl. Opt., 37, 1006-1009 (1998)

S. K. Mondal, and S. N. Sarkar, “Coupling of a laser diode to single-mode fiber with an upside-down tapered lens end”, Appl. Opt., 38, 6272-6277 (1999)

S. Mukhopadhyay, “Laser diode to circular core graded index single mode fiber excitation via upside down tapered microlens on the fiber tip and identification of the suitable refractive index profile”, J. Phys. Sci., 20, 173-187 (2015)

A. K. Ghatak, and K. Thyagarajan, Optical Electronics, (Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, 1998) Ch. 13, p 411-415

A. Karak, D. Kundu, S. Mukhopadhyay, and S. N. Sarkar, “Investigation of coupling of a laser diode to photonic crystal fiber via hyperbolic microlens on the fiber tip by ABCD matrix formalism”, Opt. Eng., 54(8), 086102(1-7) (2015)

D. Kundu, and S. Sarkar, “Prediction of propagation characteristics of photonic crystal fibers by a simpler, more complete and versatile formulation of their effective cladding indices”, Opt. Eng., 53(5), 056111(1-6) (2014)

D. Marcuse, “Loss analysis of single-mode fiber splices”, J. Bell Syst. Tech., 56(5), 703–718 (1977)

T. Hirooka, Y. Hori, and M. Nakazawa, “Gaussian and sech approximations of mode field profiles in photonic crystal fibers”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 16, 1071-1073 (2004)

M. Koshiba, and K. Saitoh, “Applicability of classical optical fiber theories to holey fibers”, Opt. Lett., 29(15), 1739–1741 (2004)

K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Empirical relations for simple design of photonic crystal fibers”, Opt. Express 13(1), 267-274 (2005)

A. K. Ghatak, and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics, (Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, 1998)

M. Bass, and V. N. Mahajan, Handbook of Optics, in Geometrical and Physical Optics, Polarised Light, Components and Instruments, Vol. 1. 3rd edn. (McGraw-Hill, NewYork, 2010) Chapters 22 and 29

S. N. Sarkar, K. Thyagarajan, and A. Kumar, “Gaussian approximation of the fundamental mode in single mode elliptic core fibers”, Opt. Commun., 49, 178-183 (1984)

S. N. Sarkar, B. P. Pal, and K. Thyagarajan, “Lens coupling of laser diodes to monomode elliptic core fibers”, J. Opt. Commun., 7, 92-96 (1986)

J. Sakai, and T. Kimura, “Design of miniature lens for semiconductor laser to single mode fiber coupling”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-16, 1059–1066 (1980)

M. D. Nielsen, J. R. Folkenberg, N. A. Mortensen, and A. Bjarklev, “Bandwidth comparison of photonic crystal fibers and conventional single mode fibers”, Opt. Express, 12(3), 430-435 (2004)

W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, “Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers”, Opt. Express, 10 (14), 609- 613 (2002)

Z. S. Peng, and L. Wang, “Optical coupling between a lensed photonic crystal fiber and a laser diode”, Int. Conf. on Communications, Circuits and Systems, Guilin, (IEEE, Guilin, 2006)


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2394-3688

© Science Front Publishers