The formation of a single star planetary system and heat balance of the planets

Alexey Stanislavovich Belyaev


This paper considers the principles of planetary formation under gravitational compression of a calm, isolated, rarefied gas-dust cloud, different from the compression of a dense gas-dust cloud of a star cluster. The distinctive feature of such compression is the instantaneous formation at a certain stage of the evolution of a gas-dust cloud of a dense, high-energy plasma that makes up a protoplanetary nebula, in which heavy chemical elements are generated. A hypothesis of the scheme of a possible nucleosynthesis is presented. The new conditions for the formation of a protoplanetary cloud, regardless of the hypothesis put forward, entail a fundamentally new concept of planetary evolution. Almost from the very first moments of the formation of a protoplanetary cloud, the proto-nuclei of future planets with their intrinsic magnetic field and complex structure are formed even before the formation of protoplanets. Formed in a same spatial zone within a same process the proto-nuclei are the progenitors of all types of planets of stellar system, i.e., cores are not formed within planets due to gravitational differentiation and high pressure generated by gravitational forces, but rather the planets emerge from proto-nuclei. After a certain, relatively short period of time, the protoplanetary cloud becomes flat and splits into two rings with a gap between them. The type of planet that is formed depends on the place where it is formed. According to physical laws, only young planets can cool down. Therefore, the Earth, which is no longer a young planet, does not cool down.


Gravitation; Formation of planets and asteroids; Planetary core; Magnetic field of a planet; Gravitational differentiation

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