“Spooky” interaction and non-classical interference interpreted by a product of classical electric field

Kazufumi Sakai


     Many experiments to verify nonlocal interaction and non-classical phenomena using entangled lights were conducted in the 1980s, and many physicists were interested in their unrecognizable correlation. These quantum mechanical effects were used in Aspect's experiments and Bell tests and had a great influence on the interpretation of quantum mechanics. However, their essence, including their “spooky” interaction, is unknown. In this study, we show that entangled light can be expressed by the product of electric fields and that the same result as quantum mechanics can be obtained using the product form.


Quantum mechanics

Full Text:



R. Hanburry Brown and R. Q. Twiss: “Correlation between Photons in two Coherent Beams of Light”, Nature, 177, 27 (1956).

G. A. Rebka and R. V. Pound: “Time-Correlated Photons”, Nature, 180, 1035 (1957).

R. J. Glauber: "Quantum Optics and Electronics", ed. C. DeWitt, A. Blandin and C. Cohen-Tannoudji (Gordon and Breach, New York, 1955) p. 63.

R. Loudon: "The Quantum Theory of Light" (Oxford, 1973) p. 111.

R. Ghosh and L. Mandel: “Observation of nonclassical effects in the interference of two photons”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1903(1987).

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel: “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference”, Phys. Rev. Lett., 59, 2044 (1987).

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel: “Observation of Spatial Quantum Beating with Separated Photodetectors”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 54 (1988).

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel: “Further evidence of nonclassical behavior in optical interference”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2941 (1989).

Z. Y. Ou, L. J. Wang and L. Mandel: “Vacuum effects on interference in two-photon down conversion”, Phys. Rev. A 40, 1428 (1989).

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel: “Violation of Bell's Inequality and Classical Probability in a Two-Photon Correlation Experiment”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 50 (1988).

J. D. Franson: “Bell inequality for position and time”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2205 (1989).

P. Grangier, M. J. Potasck and B. Yurke: “Probing the phase coherence of parametrically generated photon pairs: A new test of Bell's inequalitie”s, Phys. Rev. A 38, 3132 (1988) .

M. A. Horne, A. Svhimony and A. Zeilinger: “Two-particle interferometry”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2209 (1989).

P. G. Kwiat, W. A. Vareka, C. K. Hong, H. Nathel and R. Y. Chiao: “Correlated two-photon interference in a dual-beam Michelson interferometer”, Phys. Rev. A 41, 2910 (1990).

J. G. Rarity and P. R. Tapster: “Experimental violation of Bell’s inequality based on phase and momentum”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2495 (1990).

K. Sakai, “Simultaneous measurement of wave and particle properties using modified Young's double-slit experiment”, Journal for Foundations and Applications of Physics 5, 49 (2018).

K. Sakai, “Experimental verification of wave packet collapse using fourth-order interference”, Journal for Foundations and Applications of Physics 5, 216 (2018).

K. Sakai, “Comment on Aspect's experiment: classical interpretation”, Journal for Foundations and Applications of Physics 6, 11 (2019).

Z. Y. Ou, X. Y. Zou, L. J. Wang and L. Mandel: “Observation of nonlocal interference in separated photon channels”, Phys Rev Lett. 65, 321 (1990).

Z. Y. Ou, X. Y. Zou, L. J. Wang and L. Mandel: “Experiment on nonclassical fourth-order interference”, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2957 (1990)


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2394-3688

© Science Front Publishers