The Cosmological Redshift Manifests the Curvature and Interpreted as a Degree of Hyperbolicity of the Spacetime

Salah Ali Mabkhout

Abstract


Hubble’s law describes a uniformly expanding flat universe. Hubble’s law doesn`t explain why distant objects were receding fastest. There is an approximately linear relationship between redshift and distance at small scales for all the FLRW models, and departures from linearity at larger scales can be used to measure spatial curvature. Locally the spacetime is flat. For distant objects, the imprint of the curvature is significant, where the spacetime does no longer remain flat. The redshifts from such distant objects increase according to the increase in the curvature of the hyperbolic spacetime. The cosmological (gravitational) redshift can be interpreted as a degree of the hyperbolicity of the curved spacetime.  The Universe is globally hyperbolic as we did prove mathematically [S. A. Mabkhout, Phys. Essays, 25, 112 (2012)]. Such a solution predicts the equation of state of cosmology P = - 𝝆. The hyperbolic structure of the spacetime–not dark energy- causes the accelerated expansion of the universe. Thus, in our non-existing dark energy hyperbolic universe, the increase in the cosmological redshift can only account for the increase in curvature that causes such an accelerated expansion relative to the observer. We developed [S. A. Mabkhout, Phys. Essays, 26,422 (2013)] the equation of motion in the hyperbolic spacetime, that describes the speed up motion in the hyperbolic spacetime and predicts the flat rotation curve. In the hyperbolic spacetime, the free fall due to the curvature, causes the non-decreasing speed of the galaxies for large r. Thus, the Doppler redshift manifests such curvature. As an object is far distant apart, as much the spacetime appears relatively hyperbolic curved with a high redshift. Its velocity relatively appears to exceed the speed of light "c" due to the assumption of flat spacetime.


Keywords


Hyperbolic spacetime, cosmological redshift, Superluminous speed, Accelerating expansion of the universe, Flat curve

Full Text:

DOWNLOAD PDF

References


http://www.universe-galaxies-stars.com/Redshift.html

Sten Odenwald and Rick Fienberg, “Galaxy Redshift Reconsidered”,

http://cecelia.physics.indiana.edu/life/redshift.html

Edwin Hubble, “Effects of Red Shifts on the Distribution of Nebulae”, Astrophys. J., 84, 517H, (1936)

J. Georg von Brzeski , “Expansion of the universe — mistake of edwin hubble? Cosmological redshift and related electromagnetic phenomena in static lobachevskian (hyperbolic) universe”, Acta Physica Polonica B, 39, 6, (2008)

Vladimir Luković, Paolo Cabella, and Nicola Vittorio, “Dark matter in cosmology”, International Journal of Modern Physics A, 29 (19), (2014) 1443001, http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0217751X14430015

Charles Baltay, “The accelerating universe and dark energy”, International Journal of Modern Physics D, 23(6), (2014) 1430012 ( DOI: 10.1142/S0218271814300122)

“What is dark energy”, earthsky.org

Salah A. Mabkhout, “The hyperbolic geometry of the universe and the wedding of general relativity theory to quantum theory”, Physics Essays, 25(1), 112-118, (2012)

James B. Hartle, “Gravity An Introduction To Einstein's General Relativity”, Addison Wesley. (2003) p 409

A. Einstein, (1921), “The Meaning of Relativity” Princeton University Press (2005). pp 117-118

S. Perlmutter et al., “Measurements of Ω and Λ from 42 High-Redshift Supernovae”, Astrophys. J, 517 (2), 565, (1999)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galaxy_rotation_curve

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperbolic_trajectory

Salah A. Mabkhout, “The Big Bang hyperbolic universe neither needs inflation nor dark matter and dark energy”, Physics Essays, 26(3), 422-429, (2013)

Edwin F. Taylor and John A. Wheeler, “Exploring Black Holes: Introduction to General Relativity”, (2000), p 3-12

Tamara M. Davis, Charles H. Lineweaver, “Expanding Confusion: common misconceptions of cosmological horizons and the superluminal expansion of the universe”, arXiv: astro-ph/0310808v2 13 Nov 2003


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2394-3688

© Science Front Publishers